above and text and links below used with permission
All pages © 1996-2005 by G.Brian Holmes. All Rights
Chemtrails are the
deliberate spraying of chemicals into the skies by military
and commercial planes. The contents of these seemingly
innocent contrails are Barium, Aluminium Oxide and Carbon
Black. Why are they doing this and why is no one being told
about it? Are these attempts at weather modification? A way
to spot scalar activity (see Scalar Weapons)? An attempt to
mitigate against Climate Change? Below I post a couple of
views of what they are from a wonderful site,
www.holmestead.ca, a small rural
Canadian home site full of first hand information and
comprehensive links to a variety of sources. There are
many other sources of info out there too, one of the
best being http://www.weatherwars.info
Well at first I did not think we had Chemtrails here in New
Zealand but it appears I was wrong. Just because I live
near the International Airport and had not seen any I
presumed we were free of this particular phenomenon.
However a quick google of NZ sites revealed a different
story... check out http://www.mysteriousnewzealand.co.nz/photogallery/index.php?cat=9
some great photos of Chemtrails in NZ.
Raven, Oct 2005
following is from: http://www.rense.com/general11/chmmill.htm
dated June 2001.
MILITARY BEHIND 4 DIFFERENT CHEMTRAIL PROGRAMS
By Mike Blair
Just what exactly are those mysterious
airplane vapor trails seen filling America's (and Canada's)
skies? A group of independent investigators may have
the answer. In a series of high-tech programs that
would enthrall the most dedicated science fiction fans, the
military is producing what have become known as
"chemtrails" - the thick, viscous airplane engine trails
that have been poisoning the air and ground with toxic
chemicals. For two years, The SPOTLIGHT has been in
contact with experts in fields ranging from medicine to
nuclear energy who have been investigating the mysterious
trails left by airplanes in skies all over America and in
many foreign countries.
These "tracks" in the skies, believed to be left by a
combination of military and civilian aircraft drawn into
the massive, multi-billion dollar program, are unlike
regular high-flying aircraft's vapor trails. Instead of
dissipating rapidly, these so-called "chemtrails" mesh
together for hours and are often mistaken for natural
The principal chemical being deposited in the air consists
of various mixtures of barium salts, which were revealed in
studies undertaken by a Pennsylvania-based high-tech
weapons scientist. Chemicals, he said, were being
utilized as part of the development of a new radar system
at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio.
The base will be the site of a public demonstration on
Saturday, 23 June 2001, starting at 1 p.m. under the
sponsorship of Ohio Citizens Against Chemtrails, headed by
Kim Weber, one of the citizens working on the chemtrail
investigation. The rally will be attended by hundreds
of people from across the nation who are concerned about
these poisons being dumped out of the sky onto millions of
people on the ground.
Considerable effort has been put into chemtrail research by
a physicist who has been associated with Brookhaven
National Laboratory on Long Island, N.Y. The
scientist, with his fellow researchers, has determined that
the chemtrails are being created by efforts of the military
in at least four major, but separate, projects.
The first project is an effort to block the rays of the sun
from hitting the Earth, including ultra-violet radiation
that will come through without an adequate layer of ozone
in the upper regions above the Earth. In the event of
global warming, this, it is hoped, could lower temperatures
on the surface of the Earth and block ultra-violet
radiation from causing skin cancer in humans. The
aerosol being sprayed in this case is probably aluminum
oxide or a compound that would have similar properties, and
is the only one of the government programs that does not
use the barium mixtures.
The second and most secret project is the Navy's Radio
Frequency Mission Planner (RFMP) program, which is a system
encompassing a group of computer programs. One of its
supporting subprograms is know as Variable Terrain Radio
Parabolic Equation or VTRPE. This is a computer radio
frequency propagation program that deals with radio waves
and enables the RFMP system to visually see the terrain of
a battlefield in three dimensions on a television-type
screen. The RFMP system also depends on a satellites
to supplement the images of a battlefield picture obtained
from the ground, thus producing the 3-dimensional images.
In providing an interactive picture portraying in the radar
screen, the RFMP system allows the computer operator to
develop familiarity with the "environment" before a war
mission occurs by playing a variety of "what if?" virtual
warfare scenarios on his computer screen. Since all
major modes of radio frequency propagation are modeled in
his computer (the RFMP system), special, sometimes
counter-intuitive, cases can be examined in detail and
exploited during a battle. Initially, the VTRPE
computer program only worked accurately over water and
along coastal areas but not over land masses because the
system's radar waves required an atmospheric condition
known as "ducting," over land, to operate accurately.
This "ducting" problem was solved by releasing an aerosol,
a mixture of barium salts into the atmosphere over the
United States. Thus, they can make an atmospheric
radio frequency "duct" with a base of barium aerosol
released from aircraft.
One of the researchers, the physicist from Brookhaven,
explained how the process works: The chemical and
electrical characteristics of the mixture cause moisture to
stay in the clouds. The aerosol sets up an electrical
and chemical environmental that supports RF ducting for the
RFMP/VTRPE warfare system. "The mixture of barium salt from
the aerosol when sprayed in a straight line will also
provide a ducting path form point A to point B and will
enable high frequency communications along that path, even
over the curvature of the Earth, in both directions," he
said. "Enemy high frequency communications can be
monitored easier with the straight line A to B ducting
medium." The third project also utilizes the mixture
of barium salts in the atmosphere and involves weather
control. It is a project of the AIR Force and
utilizes concepts of radio frequency radiation, developed
originally by legendary scientist Nikola Tesla, against the
ionosphere above the Earth. Known as the so-called
HAARP project, it is manipulating life-support systems in
the environment, testing and altering them for military
advantage. Air Force documents, obtained by the
independent researchers, indicate that "the risks are high
but the rewards are worth it." The mixture of barium
salts, supporting moisture, is administered along the
weather fronts and manipulated in a controlled
fashion. It is believed that microwave energy is also
utilized in the weather control program. Weather data
is also a required input to the VTRPE program of the RFMP
system. Perfect weather control technology will
enable the military to withhold rain, cause floods, cause
drought, cause storms, withhold sunshine, damage food
crops, and bring any country to its knees without firing a
shot. The fourth atmospheric project is being run by
the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) as a
means to detect and decontaminate enemy biological
attacks. The program also utilizes a mixture of
barium salts as the base vehicle in aerosol, along with
special polymer fibers. The combination allows
detection of biological agents. Some biological agents have
actually been released into the atmosphere in trials,
testing the detection and decontamination systems. It
is believed that barium salt, polymer fibers and other
chemicals in the atmosphere are the physical irritants that
may be directly or indirectly responsible for unexplained
nose bleeds, asthma, allergies, pneumonia, upper
respiratory ailments and arthritis-like
systems. Chemicals sprayed into the atmosphere are
producing air and ground conditions that may be harmful to
humans and animals, while stimulating the growth of molds
and bacteria. Barium salts, an Earth metal, are
toxins that absorb readily into the gastrointestinal tract
which are deposited into muscles and other tissue. No
case data is available on the long-term effects of barium
in humans. "The programs remain secret because the
Environmental Protection Agency and state environmental
agencies need 'not know' about the by-products of the
metabolites of these biological, illegal and harmful
agents," said one of the researchers. "It's for that
reason the combined projects have been kept secret from the
following is from: http://www.holmestead.ca/chemtrails/pointstoponder.html
All pages © 1996-2005 by G.Brian Holmes. All Rights
Points to Ponder:
The Solar connection?
Date: Wednesday, 7 July 2004, 5:41 p.m.
Dear Ms. Tietjen,
I know what chemtrails are and their purpose.
Uncovering the terrible secret of chemtrails has led to
many sleepless nights. What the human race faces, quite
literally, is a battle for our future existence -- at the
very least a battle to try to retain the civilization we
now enjoy. Terrorism, Iraq, Afghanistan, the potential
threats of Iran and North Korea, nuclear conflagration --
all pale when compared to the dire threat our world is
facing right now. That's right. Now. This instant -- not
some misty time in the far off future.
As best as can be documented, chemtrails first appeared in
our skies during 1997. But the growing awareness among
certain scientific and military circles that something
along the lines as chemtrails were needed to protect the
human race began as long ago as the early 1980s.
Many hypotheses exist as to why the world's military forces
(initially, primarily the United States Air Force) embarked
upon this massive, well-coordinated, atmospheric aerosol
spraying. Most of the hypotheses border on fringe science,
complete speculation or fantastic conspiracy theories.
These wide-ranging hypotheses span the spectrum from aerial
applications in conjunction with HAARP technology being
experimented with from installations in Alaska, Colorado,
Utah, the United Kingdom, Costa Rica, Australia, the
Antarctic and Japan (most are only familiar with the
Alaskan operations as that has been heavily reported and
discussed) -- to wild assertions that it is some kind of
“dumbing down” or “pruning” operation designed to take
control of the greater populace, or de-populate the Earth
to numbers that can be contained by some shadowy elite.
Falling between these two extremes are those that believe
that the now worldwide mission is somehow attempting to
limit or forestall so-called global warming.
Those that are aware of the aerosol spraying (which is a
surprisingly small number) and believe it has to do with
the climate are actually the closest to the truth. But the
truth is so shocking, so unnerving, and so likely to cause
huge social and economic upheaval, that it is
understandable why the “powers that be” have elected to
attempt this planetary rescue mission while keeping most of
the world in the dark. Indeed, even most of the crews that
fly the missions out of air force bases around the globe in
specially re-fitted Lockheed and Boeing jets do not
understand the true nature of their mission. The full scope
of the mission is only revealed on a need-to-know basis.
And what initially began as an American project has now
been joined by almost every air force of every nation on
The residue of chemtrails have been analyzed by some
independent laboratories and the results have been
variable, and to an extent, conflicting. Barium, aluminum
oxide particles and carbon black are the primary mixture
and work together to create the atmospheric barrier.
Stories of samples from chemtrail residue analyzed by a
facility in British Columbia, which is presumably licensed
by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, were said to
have found (in addition to the jet fuel) numerous pathogens
including: Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, which causes respiratory
infection and attacks the immunization system; Serratia
Marcescens, an antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing
pneumonia, endocarditis and meningitis; as well as
Streptomyces and various molds capable of inducing heart
disease, upper respiratory and gastrointestinal ailments.
The problem with any analysis that presumably detects
pathogens in the aerosol mixture, however, is that the
samples could easily have become contaminated as they were
not retrieved while airborne, but harvested from the ground
or near the ground.
Some think that the chemtrail mission is directly related
to the late Dr. Edward Teller's infamous white paper
advocating aerosol spraying as a means towards global
climate control. Dr. Teller, known throughout the world as
the “father of the hydrogen bomb,” did write such a paper
and it is still downloadable from the Internet as a PDF
The truth is, Dr. Teller's paper was more of a coincidence
than a primary motivator for the aerosol spraying program
which had already been approved in principal by both
President George H.W. Bush in 1989 and President William
Clinton in 1991. In 2001, George W. Bush inherited the
program and, working with virtually every government in the
world, moved to institute the program on a planetary basis.
The Earth is in danger. Real danger. No, we are not about
to be invaded by bug-eyed space aliens or gigantic mutant
insects erupting from their atomically contaminated lairs.
The danger, however, does sound like a science fiction
scenario. Unfortunately it is real. Actually, to be exact,
the Earth itself is not in imminent danger -- merely every
form of life that currently inhabits this planet.
When did this danger emerge? No one may ever know for
certain, but the signs that something was beginning to go
terribly wrong were observed by a few as far back as the
1940s. The true scope of the danger began to be realized in
the late 1960s. Less than 15 years later the data being
analyzed confirmed that the worst fears were true. At that
point the only questions in many researcher's minds was,
“How much time do we have?” and “Do we have a sufficient
level of technology to save ourselves?”
In a way, we are lucky. If this crisis had emerged even 100
years ago the human race wouldn't have stood a chance. It
wouldn't even have known what was happening to it. Even now
we can understand the ultimate consequences, the effects,
yet have very little knowledge of exactly what is causing
While the world is heatedly debating issues such as war and
rumors of war, pollution as a cause of global warming, the
merits or lack of merits of certain religions or who will
win the U.S. presidential election in November, the real
action is occurring almost daily at 25,000 to 50,000 feet
above our heads.
The heroes are anonymous; their are weapons sparkling
pinpoints cutting through the atmosphere at 500 mph. I call
them heroes because that's what they are -- men and women
who are literally fighting every day in a valiant attempt
to save all of our lives. No one knows for sure if they
will succeed. If they fail, however, the consequences are
almost too terrible to contemplate. Quite simply, in the
worst case scenario, a mass extinction will occur not
experienced on Earth for almost 250 million years. I do not
wish to frighten anyone, nor am I a ”doom and gloomer,” for
I believe that we have a good chance of making this work.
Being a realist, however, I must admit there are no iron
clad guarantees. Putting it bluntly, if we fail, the human
race will, for the most part, cease to exist.
Climate is just one of the changes facing our brave, new
world. Scientists have recently discovered that a new mass
extinction is underway. Insect and animal migrations have
begun on a titanic scale. Biological mutations are erupting
spontaneously that have no counterpart historically and no
easy explanation. Most disturbing of all, it has been
confirmed that human male sperm counts are dropping
precipitously around the world -- a trend that began to be
noticed and tracked just several decades ago. Concurrent to
this is the little reported fact that this trend towards
infertility is not constrained to humans alone, but cuts
across all mammalian species.
The late film director and producer, George Pal, created
many classic science fiction and fantasy movies from the
1950s through the 1970s. One of his earliest films was the
spectacular, “When Worlds Collide,” which some who speak of
renegade planets or cometary bodies rely on heavy for their
“factual” source material. Well, rest easy, for it is very
unlikely you or I will ever see the planetary impacts or
close flybys (such as the much discussed “Planet X”)
anytime soon. By anytime soon I mean during the next
several thousand years.
Yet, in a sense, there are worlds colliding right now.
These worlds are in our solar system and include our Earth.
The collisions are not of mass, but energy. Some of the
energy is coming from the sun, which has become more active
than at anytime since the last 1200 to 1400 years. But
other activity seems to be extra-solar in nature. Here a
secret, but fierce debate has begun as to whether it is
because our entire solar system has moved into a new area
of space rampant with anomalous energy, or if it is
cyclical in nature and energy streams between our system
and another dimension have erupted once again after
millions of years.
As I mentioned previously, the debate is interesting, but
the effect is what is most important. Whatever the cause,
it has been agreed upon that the effect is very quickly
going to change our climate radically, displace billions,
disrupt food supplies, cause massive outbreaks of disease,
irradiate parts of the Earth, melt the Arctic ice, turn off
crucial ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream that protect
northern Europe from arctic-like conditions. . . and all
that is merely the precursor of the breakdowns to come.
Mars... the ancient god of war, of turmoil, of destruction.
The angry red planet.
Perhaps aptly named, Mars was the first planet that gave us
clues that what was happening to Earth's climate had
little, if anything, to do with fluorocarbon in hair spray
or the burning of fossil fuels.
Large, politicized organizations like The Sierra Club and
Greenpeace and politicians like Al Gore may still be
beating the “evil industry is causing global warming” drum,
but they are ignorant of the facts. The handwringers over
the stalemated Kyoto Protocol don't know or understand that
their rather draconian agreement could have been passed and
enforced to the letter and it would make not one iota of
difference to the massive upcoming climate change ahead of
us. It is analogous to attempting to stop a rampaging flood
with a few, feeble sandbags.
Mars is heating up. Mars is undergoing massive climactic
change, exactly as our Earth is warming. The year 2050 is
about the time that NASA predicts the polar ice caps on
Mars will be completely eradicated.
Curiously, the United States Navy has embarked on a time
schedule to launch its new arctic fleet by 2050. You see,
the year 2050 is when they project the north pole will be
divested of much of its ice and its waterways will be open
Mars and Earth are both losing their ice caps.
So, the Earth is heating up. . . and it's not caused by
pollution or volcanic action. Mars is heating up. . . and
it is certainly not being caused by pollution, nor even
volcanic eruptions. Are these the only two planets
exhibiting such anomalous climate changes?
The amazing truth is every planet in our solar system is
being affected, from Mercury all the way out to distant
Pluto (mean distance from sun 3.67 billion miles).
Astronomers first discovered that Pluto is heating up
during their 2003 routine observations. The data left them
scratching their collective heads. Not only was Pluto
heating up, but it was getting hotter even as its orbit was
taking it farther away from the sun!
Other observations of the planets during the past decade
have revealed that Mercury, the closest planet to the sun
(its mean distance from the Sun is cited as 36,000,000
miles) has developed an ice cap. Think about that: it has
formed an icecap. What does that mean in respect to the
extra-solar energy flowing into our system? It is heating
up a world like Pluto while cooling down parts of a planet
like Mercury, where the average temperature has always been
measured as hot enough to melt lead.
But there is much more.
The thick atmosphere of Venus is rapidly changing. Its
chemical composition has changed remarkably in the past
several years and that change is accelerating. The giant
gas planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) are
heating up. The radiation being emitted from them has
intensified. Remarkably, even their luminosity has
increased from 50% to over 300% depending on the planet.
And most astounding of all, Io, one of Jupiter's many
moons, has become so hot that if it continues its
temperature rise Io is in danger of melting.
The climate change is not just affecting Earth. It is a
solar systemwide phenomenon.
Less than eight years ago the United States took the lead
and instituted a brilliant and bold project borne out of
desperation: creating a thermal, anti-radiation barrier in
a band of our atmosphere beneath Earth's troposphere.
Although the project itself may cause some planetary
climate change, it is calculated to cause far less damage
than the events that have been extrapolated to occur in our
near future. It is a two-edged sword as the aerosol
spraying will undeniably affect some individuals making
them sick or otherwise affecting to an extent their immune
systems and respiratory systems. The trade off, however, is
long term survival of our civilization.
The dice are rolling and no one knows if one of the most
secret projects in history can protect our world from the
extra-solar (perhaps extra-dimensional) catastrophes lying
in wait ahead of us. It is ironic, that a project every bit
as secretive as the breaking of the Nazi High Command
codes, or the Manhattan atom bomb project, is visible in
the skies above our heads on any given day (and sometimes
any given night). It lends credence to the old intelligence
axiom that the best way to keep something secret is by
hiding it in plain sight. Obviously, hundreds of millions
have seen chemtrails in the skies and have ignored them or
dismissed them as simple ice-vapor contrails.
During the past several years some of the media have raised
questions about chemtrails (such as Fox News' reports about
them in 2002). But the news reports mysteriously fade away
and mainstream investigative reporters and science
reporters who express an interest are, for the most part,
persuaded to drop their efforts to identify exactly what is
going on in our skies and why.
As long ago as the early 1940s, some physicists and
astronomers began to notice a pattern of change coming over
the sun. It did not become more pronounced until the new
millennium arrived. During the past four years, from 2000
through 2004, the sun's activity has become more
unpredictable and more obvious. Scientists, some working
for the military or the federal government, began to think
the unthinkable: the sun and all the planets were beginning
a massive transformation. This transformation is
unstoppable, potentially catastrophic to life and will most
certainly cause the Earth's environment to experience
abrupt changes on a massive scale. Because the sun and all
the planets together are reacting to this outside
phenomenon, it is beginning to be suspected that some
trans-dimensional energy in this region of space is
interacting with the normal activity of the sun and the
Richard C. Hoagland, among others, has been advocating such
an energy transference between our universe and (for lack
of a better term) a ”sister universe” for some years now.
He has been all too aware of the significant changes
happening with our sun and all the planets in our solar
system. His latest paper discussing this phenomenon, (which
he calls ”hyper-dimensional”) is ”Interplanetary Day After
Tomorrow?” available to read here:
Mr. Hoagland has a brilliant and highly imaginative mind.
He is also a maverick. Because some of his methods are
unorthodox and his insight unsettling, much of the
scientific establishment tends to dismiss his ideas. The
irony is, years after they dismiss his observations they
often are found rushing to publish papers in peer
publications exactly echoing what he often first pointed
out to them. Such is the history of the established norm
versus the insightful innovators.
Hyper-dimensionalism or trans-dimensional energy
transference, call it what you will,this phenomenon seems
to be at the root of the system-wide disaster unfolding
right before our eyes. It is only the beginning, perhaps
the beginning of the end.
H. G. Wells' famous tale, “The Time Machine,” was spun
about a Nineteenth century inventor who breaks the
boundaries of time and propels himself more than 800,000
years into the future only to find that the human race has
split into two: the Eloi, who live on the surface of the
world, and the Morlocks who are subterranean dwellers. Over
the eons the Morlocks became monstrous, half-human
cannibals that still controlled a rudimentary technology.
The Eloi became simple, Eden-like creatures who were
blissfully unaware that they were the entree of choice on
the Morlock's dinner plates.
The road ahead of us may not produce such a gruesome
schism, but the human race may indeed be forced into a
scenario similar to that envisioned by Mr. Wells'
Many who read this are very much aware of the massive
underground complexes that have been built in the United
States and other countries since World War II. Much of the
technology was acquired from Nazi engineering projects and
during the last 60 years vastly improved upon using more
advanced technology and materials.
The original purpose of most of the underground complexes
(many in hollowed out mountains or under the wasteland of
parched desert terrain) was for key elements of society and
government to survive a nuclear cataclysm. To an extent
that is still one of the purposes. But all have been
modified and more are being constructed around the world at
breakneck speed in the event that the system phenomenon is
not constrained by the aerosol chemical barrier, or the
changes of the solar system last much longer than what is
hoped. I say “hoped” because although there are numerous
hypotheses, no one really knows how long this change will
last or if, indeed, it may become permanent.
Therefore, millions of people may have to spend the rest of
their lives in underground cities -- and perhaps their
children and grandchildren. Of course, that still leaves
billions on the surface of a dying planet. How long those
billions will be able to survive, no one knows. The future
“Morlocks” will be tasked with furthering the research so
one day Mankind can safely regain a foothold on the
surface, while the “Eloi” will have to fend for themselves.
Seeing the impact that the extra-solar changes could bring
to this planet if the aerosol spraying program fails, it
seems more likely that the ”Morlocks” will remain human,
while the “Eloi” surface survivors (if any) could mutate
into the monsters.
I have traveled around the world and lived in many
different American cities. Currently, I reside in the
Southwest. I watch the chemplanes fly in from Edwards Air
Force base in California, desperately performing their
mission. Although most of the crews are not aware of it,
the success of their mission holds the fate of the human
race in their hands.
Several months ago I met a flight engineer who is a regular
crew member aboard a re-fitted U.S. Air Force Boeing
aircraft that is part of the aerosol mission out of
Edwards. I will call him “Roger Anderson,” although that is
not his real name. He is a friend of a friend of mine who
works in chemical engineering. Anderson was quite frank
with me after I divulged to him all I knew at that point
about the history and mission of chemtrails. We were
sitting in the corner of an almost deserted BBQ restaurant
in the city of Simi Valley, California (a restaurant, by
the way, often frequented by men who work at Northrop's
Skunkworks on Project Aurora, if that rings any bells with
Anderson confirmed the true mission objectives and
protocols and laughed when I brought up some of the
half-baked conspiracy theories out there. He shook his head
and found it fascinating that people could believe that the
government would purposefully try to make people sick on a
worldwide scale. After all, he pointed out, we're all
breathing the same air -- whether you are a farmer in Iowa,
a mechanic in Texas or a politician in Washington, DC.
When I pressed him about the long term health effects from
an aerosol spray that always contains at its base carbon
black, ionized aluminum particles and barium, he admitted
it will make some people ill. But he went on to argue that
the alternative is much worse if just left to follow its
own course without at least the attempt of human
intervention. Based on what I have personally learned from
my own research and contacts with government scientists
these past few years, I had to agree.
So what comes next? Will we reach the apex of drama as
depicted in that old, British science fiction film, ”The
Day the Earth Caught Fire,” where actor Leo McKern,
portraying the editor of a London newspaper, holds up two
possible headlines for the morning edition: ”Earth Saved.
Billions Give Thanks,” or ”Earth Doomed. People of the
World Pray.” The film ended with that scene and the viewer
was left to their own imagination as to which scenario
We are in that same predicament. We don't know exactly the
cause of the phenomenon we are fighting. We don't know how
long it will last or the peak of its intensity. We only
know that the Earth, as well as all the other planets and
our sun, has become enveloped in an unknown energy field
that threatens all stability across the solar system and
our very lives.
When you see the chemplanes and the chemtrails in their
wakes, look at them not with fear and trepidation, nor with
anger and enmity, but embrace them and their brave crews.
They are truly fighting the odds to save us and our planet.
Look up at the skies and say a prayer for the heroes who
are among us. If they fail, we all fail and our race itself
may fail. But damn it, at least we went down swinging!